Vela Diaz, Dilys .
Calophyllum L.(Calophyllaceae) in South America: the utility of anatomical characters combined with multivariate analyses.
Opposite leaves, secondary parallel venation, and yellow resin are characters that distinguish Calophyllum,a tropical tree, among other Calophyllaceae. Overlapping floral and vegetative characters at intra- and inter-species level has made delimitation of Calophyllum species challenging. Eight species have been recognized in South America, but the last revision of the genus there is over a century old. A detailed study of South American species is needed to understand patterns of variation there,especially within C. brasiliense, the most variable species. Multivariate analyses and anatomical characters have been useful in disentangling species complexes. Multivariate analyses of morphological and anatomical characters were performed at three different geographic levels for Calophyllum. At the general level, all specimens were included; at the regional level, different ecological regions were the foci; and at the local level, political divisions (e.g.countries) were the units used. In total, thirteen preliminary morphogroups were identified using 32 morphological characters of the leaf, flower and fruit, taken from 400 specimens, and 18 anatomical leaf characters observed on 45 specimens. Principal Component Analyses (PCA) and Discriminant Analyses (DA) were performed, DA being used only for those PCAs that showed potential groups.Only five species were supported by both multivariate analyses and morphologica and anatomical characters. Key characters included leaf blade length and width and anatomical characters like presence/absence of hypodermis, amount of sclerenchymatous tissue associate with resin canal, and orientation of resin canals at the leaf margin. This study is the first to integrate both morphological and anatomical characters in a multivariate framework for Calophyllum species. Taxonomic treatment of South American Calophyllum species based on the results of this study will be discussed; two new species need to be described, including one from Central America.
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1 - University Of Missouri - St. Louis, Department Biology. 223 Research Building, One University Blvd., Saint Louis, MO, 63121-4499, USA
Presentation Type: Oral Paper:Papers for Sections
Location: Lindell C/Chase Park Plaza
Date: Tuesday, July 12th, 2011
Time: 9:00 AM