Schori, Melanie .
Fruit Morphology and Anatomy in Aquifoliales.
Fruit morphology and anatomy are often neglected as sources of phylogenetically informative data for assessing patterns of evolution. A detailed comparative study of fruit structure in the eudicot order Aquifoliales (20 genera in five families) highlights the range of diversity present at the generic level in this basal campanulid clade. Four main fruit types are present: Ilex and Helwingia have a drupe with several pyrenes, Phyllonoma has a few-seeded berry, Cardiopteris has a symmetrically winged samara with one seed, and the other 16 genera all produce drupes with a single seed. Several unusual fruit morphologies occur, including a lateral fleshy appendage in seven genera of Stemonuraceae, and an accrescent terminal appendage in Cardiopteris. Cantleya and Citronella both exhibit invaginated endocarps. The fruits are also diverse anatomically, with two kinds of mucilage cells, several combinations of crystal types, tannin cells in three genera, abundant xylem fibers in Stemonuraceae, and gelatinized cell walls in Gonocaryum. Parthenocarpic fruits, examined from dioecious genera in three different families, differ anatomically from seed-bearing fruits. This diversity of fruit structure provides important new data for understanding relationships among members of Aquifoliales.
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1 - Jodrell Laboratory, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, Surrey, TW9 3AG, UK
Presentation Type: Oral Paper:Papers for Sections
Location: Lindell A/Chase Park Plaza
Date: Tuesday, July 12th, 2011
Time: 9:30 AM