Simmons, Mark , Freudenstein, John .
Spurious99% bootstrap and jackknife support for unsupported clades.
Quantifying branch support using the bootstrap and/or jackknife is generally considered to be an essential component of rigorous parsimony and maximum likelihood phylogenetic analyses. Previous authors have described how application of the frequency-within-replicates approach to treating multiple equally optimal trees found in a given bootstrap pseudoreplicate can provide apparent support for otherwise unsupported clades. We demonstrate how a similar problem may occur when a non-representative subset of equally optimal trees are held per pseudoreplicate, which we term the undersampling-within-replicates artifact. We illustrate the frequency-within-replicates and undersampling-within-replicates bootstrap and jackknife artifacts using both contrived and empirical examples, demonstrate that the artifacts can occur in both parsimony and likelihood analyses, and show that the artifacts occur in outputs from multiple different phylogenetic-inference programs. Based on our results, we make the following five recommendations, which are particularly relevant to supermatrix analyses, but apply to all phylogenetic analyses. First, when two or more optimal trees are found in a given pseudoreplicate they should be summarized using the strict-consensus rather than frequency-within-replicates approach. Second jackknife resampling should be used rather than bootstrap resampling. Third, multiple tree searches while holding multiple trees per search should be conducted in each pseudoreplicate rather than conducting only a single search and holding only a single tree. Fourth, branches with a minimum possible optimized length of zero should be collapsed within each tree search rather than collapsing branches only if their maximum possible optimized length is zero. Fifth, resampling values should be mapped onto the strict consensus of all optimal trees found rather than simply presenting the >= 50% bootstrap or jackknife tree or mapping the resampling values onto a single optimal tree.
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1 - Colorado State University, Department Of Biology, FORT COLLINS, CO, 80523-1878, USA
2 - Ohio State University, MUSEUM OF BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY, 1315 KINNEAR RD, COLUMBUS, OH, 43212-1157, USA
Presentation Type: Oral Paper:Papers for Sections
Location: Lindell B/Chase Park Plaza
Date: Wednesday, July 13th, 2011
Time: 9:15 AM